Distribution. Widespread throughout host ranges in Alaska, Canada, and northeastern and northwestern United States.
Damage. Larvae tunnel through scale tissue (usually no more than one larva per scale) and eventually into the cone axis, but do not attack seeds. Although spruce cone axis midges can be common and many larvae may occur in a single cone, impact to seed production is normally low. Some spruce orchards in the interior of British Columbia have suffered seed losses when infestation levels were high enough that affected cones dried and opened prematurely, releasing seeds before harvest. Seeds remaining in these cones are difficult to extract.