When applied as directed under conditions described, this product controls undesirable vegetation listed on this label. This product also suppresses or controls undesirable vegetation listed on this label, when applied at recommended rates for release of established coniferous or deciduous species listed in the "Conifer Release" and "Deciduous Release" sections of this label. This product may be applied using aerial and ground spray or wiper equipment for silvicultural site preparation, rights of ways, and conifer release, and ground spray or wiper equipment for deciduous release, forest road-side vegetation management and forest tree planting nurseries. Woody vegetation may be controlled by injection application of this product. See the "Mixing", "Application Instructions" and "Selective Equipment" sections of this label for information on how to properly apply this product. For herbaceous weeds, woody brush, and trees controlled, see the "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label. For specific site preparation instructions, see the "Site Preparation, Forest Roadside and Rights of Way Vegetation Management" section of the label. For specific conifer or deciduous release instructions see the "Conifer Release" or "Deciduous Release" sections of this label. Treatments should not be made to trees or brush after fall leaf drop has begun. For specific forest tree planting nursery instructions, see the "Forest Tree Planting Nurseries" section of this label. For specific injection application instructions, see the "Injection Applications" section of this label. For specific instructions on use of wick or wiper applicators for vegetation control, see the "Selective Equipment" section of this label. This product moves through the plant from the point of foliage contact to and into the root system. Visible effects on most annual weeds occur within 2 to 4 days, but on most susceptible perennial weeds, trees and woody brush, may not occur until 7 to 14 days. Extremely cool or cloudy weather at treatment time may slow down activity of this product and delay visual effects or control. Visible effects are a gradual wilting and yellowing of the plant which advance to complete browning of above-ground growth and deterioration of underground plant parts. Delay application until vegetation has emerged to the stages described for control of such vegetation under the "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label to provide adequate leaf surface to receive the spray. Unemerged plants arising from underground rhizomes or root stocks of perennials will not be affected by the spray and will continue to grow. For this reason best control of most perennial herbaceous vegetation is obtained when treatment is made at late growth stages approaching maturity. Always use the higher rate of this product per hectare within the recommended range on hard to control species or when vegetation growth is heavy or dense. Do not treat vegetation under poor growing conditions such as drought stress, disease or insect damage as reduced vegetation control may result. Reduced results may also occur when treating vegetation heavily covered with dust. Rainfall occurring soon after application may reduce effectiveness. Heavy rainfall within 2 hours after application may wash the product off the foliage and a repeat treatment may be required. Do not mix with any surfactant, pesticide, herbicide oils or any other material other than water unless specified in this label. For best results spray coverage should be uniform and complete. Do not spray weed foliage to the point of runoff.
For resistance management, Glyfo Silvi Herbicide is a Group 9 herbicide. Any weed population may contain or develop plants naturally resistant to Glyfo Silvi Herbicide and other Group 9 herbicides. The resistant biotypes may dominate the weed population if these herbicides are used repeatedly in the same field. Other resistance mechanisms that are not linked to site of action, but specific for individual chemicals, such as enhanced metabolism, may also exist. Appropriate resistance-management strategies should be followed. To delay herbicide resistance:
Where possible, rotate the use of Glyfo Silvi Herbicide or other Group 9 herbicides within a growing season or among growing seasons with different herbicide groups that control the same weeds in a field.
Use tank mixtures with herbicides from a different group when such use is permitted. To delay resistance, the less resistance-prone partner should control the target weed(s) as effectively as the more resistance-prone partner.
Herbicide use should be based on an integrated weed management program that includes scouting, historical information related to herbicide use and crop rotation, and considers tillage (or other mechanical control methods), cultural (for example, higher crop seeding rates; precision fertilizer application method and timing to favour the crop and not the weeds), biological (weed-competitive crops or varieties) and other management practices.
Monitor weed populations after herbicide application for signs of resistance development (for example, only one weed species on the herbicide label not controlled). If resistance is suspected, prevent weed seed production in the affected area if possible by an alternative herbicide from a different group. Prevent movement of resistant weed seeds to other fields by cleaning harvesting and tillage equipment when moving between fields, and planting clean seed.
Have suspected resistance weed seeds tested by a qualified laboratory to confirm resistance and identify alternative herbicide options.
Contact your local extension specialist or Sharda Cropchem Limited representative for any additional pesticide resistance-management and/or integrated management recommendations for specific target vegetation and weed biotypes.
For further information or to report suspected resistance, contact Sharda Cropchem Limited at 1-888-760-0187.
3.0 MIXING & APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS
This product mixes readily with water. For ground, aerial or industrial type sprayers, fill the spray tank with one half the required amount of water. Add the proper amount of herbicide (see "Application Instructions" section of the label) and mix well before adding the remaining portion of water. Placing the filling hose below the surface of the liquid solution will prevent excessive foaming. Removing hose from tank immediately will avoid back siphoning into to water source. Use of mechanical agitators may cause excessive foaming. By-pass lines should terminate at the bottom of the tank. For use in knapsack sprayers, it is suggested that the proper amount of this herbicide be mixed with water in a larger container. Fill sprayer with the mixed solution.
NOTE: REDUCED RESULTS MAY OCCUR IF WATER CONTAINING SOIL IS USED, SUCH AS WATER FROM PONDS AND UNLINED DITCHES.
3.2 APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS
APPLY THESE SPRAY SOLUTIONS IN PROPERLY MAINTAINED AND CALIBRATED EQUIPMENT CAPABLE OF DELIVERING DESIRED VOLUMES. HAND GUN APPLICATIONS SHOULD BE PROPERLY DIRECTED TO AVOID SPRAYING DESIRABLE PLANTS.
AVOID DRIFT-Drift may cause damage to any vegetation contacted for which treatment is not intended. Applications in wind conditions in excess of local and/or provincial aerial spray regulations are not recommended. To prevent injury to adjacent vegetation, appropriate buffer zones must be maintained. Do not apply directly to any body of water populated with fish or used for domestic purposes. Do not use in areas where adverse impact on domestic water or aquatic species is likely.
3.2.1 APPLICATION RATES
To control or suppress herbaceous weeds, woody brush and trees, apply 3 to 6 litres of this product per hectare using aerial, ground boom or boomless, or mist blower equipment, or apply as a 1 to 2 percent solution using hand-held high volume equipment. Use the 6 litres rate for control of maple, alder or willow species. For control of perennial herbaceous weeds in site preparation applications using aerial, ground boom or boomless, or mist blower equipment, apply 7 to 12 litres of this product per hectare as directed in the recommended volume of clean water to the foliage of actively growing vegetation. For specific rates for wick or wiper applicators, see the "Selective Equipment" section of this label.
3.2.2 AERIAL EQUIPMENT
Apply only by fixed-wing or rotary aircraft equipment which has been functionally and operationally calibrated for the atmospheric conditions of the area and the application rates and conditions of this label. Label rates, conditions and precautions are product specific. Read and understand the entire label before opening this product. Apply only at the rate(s) recommended for aerial application on this label in 20 to 100 litres of water per hectare. For control of perennial weeds in site preparation applications using 7 to 12 litres per hectare of this product, use 50 to 100 litres of water per hectare. Where no rate for aerial application appears for the specific use, this product cannot be applied by any type of aerial equipment. As density of vegetation increases, spray volume should be increased within the recommended range to ensure complete coverage. Ensure uniform application. To avoid streaked, uneven or overlapped application, use appropriate marking devices, or equivalent electronic positioning systems (GPS).
Thoroughly wash aircraft, especially landing gear, after each day of spraying to remove residues of this product accumulated during spraying or from spills. PROLONGED EXPOSURE OF THIS PRODUCT TO UNCOATED STEEL SURFACES MAY RESULT IN CORROSION AND POSSIBLE FAILURE OF THE PART. LANDING GEAR ARE MOST SUSCEPTIBLE. The maintenance of an organic coating (paint) which meets aerospace specification MIL-C- 38412 may prevent corrosion.
Apply only when meteorological conditions at the treatment site allow for complete and even crop coverage. Apply only under conditions of good practice specific to aerial application as outlined in the National Aerial Pesticide Application Manual, developed by the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Committee on Pest Management and Pesticides. Do not apply to any body of water. Avoid drifting of spray onto any body of water or other nontarget areas. Specified buffer zones should be observed. Coarse sprays are less likely to drift. Therefore, avoid combinations of pressure and nozzle type that will result in the production of fine particles (mist). Do not angle nozzles forward into the airstream and do not increase spray volume by increasing nozzle pressure. Do not spray during periods of dead calm or when wind velocity and direction pose a risk of spray drift. Do not spray when the wind is blowing towards a nearby sensitive crop, garden, terrestrial habitat (such as a shelter belt) or aquatic habitat.
Do not allow the pilot to mix chemicals to be loaded onto the aircraft. Loading of premixed chemicals with a closed system is permitted. It is desirable that the pilot have communication capabilities at each treatment site at the time of application. The field crew and mixer/loaders must wear chemical resistant gloves, coveralls and goggles or face shield during mixing/loading, cleanup and repair. Follow the more stringent label precautions in cases where the operator precautions exceed the generic label recommendations on the existing ground boom label. All personnel on the job site must wash hands and face thoroughly before eating or drinking. Protective clothing, aircraft cockpit and vehicle cabs must be decontaminated regularly.
3.2.3 BOOM EQUIPMENT
For control of herbaceous weeds and woody brush and trees listed in the "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label using conventional boom equipment--Apply this product in 100 to 300 litres of clean water per hectare as a broadcast spray using no more pressure than 275 kPa.
3.2.4 BOOMLESS EQUIPMENT
For control of herbaceous weeds, woody brush and trees listed in the "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label using boomless equipment such as cluster nozzles--Apply this product in 100-350 litres of clean water per hectare as a broadcast spray using no more pressure than 275 kPa.
3.2.5 HAND HELD AND HIGH VOLUME EQUIPMENT (USE COARSE SPRAYS ONLY)
For control of herbaceous weeds, woody brush and trees listed in the "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label using knapsack sprayers or high volume spraying equipment utilizing handguns or other suitable nozzle arrangements. Applications should be made on a spray-to-wet basis. Spray coverage should be uniform and complete. Do not spray to point of runoff.
3.2.6 MIST BLOWER EQUIPMENT
For control of herbaceous weeds, woody brush and trees listed in the "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label--Use the recommended rate of this product in at least 200 litres of water per hectare.
5.0 DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Spray coverage should be uniform and complete. Do not spray to the point of runoff. Do not allow spray drift to contact non-target desirable vegetation as severe damage may occur.
5.2 WOODLAND MANAGEMENT
Treatment of 500 hectares or less SITE PREPARATION (Ground Only), FOREST ROADSIDE (Ground Only) and RIGHTS-OF-WAY VEGETATION MANAGEMENT (Ground or Aerial)
Use this product as a broadcast treatment at recommended rates, as listed in the "Application Rates" section, to control herbaceous weeds, woody brush and tree species listed in the "Vegetation Controlled" section. For control of herbaceous weeds, apply when most perennial broadleaf weeds have reached the early head or early bud stage of growth. For perennial grasses, apply when most weeds are 20 centimetres in height. Apply when brush and tree species are actively growing and when foliage is full and well-developed. For best results apply in late summer or early fall. Some autumn colors on undesirable deciduous species are acceptable provided no major leaf fall has occurred. Following site preparation application of this product, any silvicultural species may be planted. For control of vegetation on sites with infestations of ericaceous species (eg. Kalmia spp – sheep laurel, lamb kill), use 6 litres per hectare Glyfo Silvi Herbicide in the recommended water volume and an additional silicon-based surfactant (such as Sylgard 309) as per label instructions. Apply between mid-August and mid-September for maximum performance.
5.2.1 CONIFER RELEASE (Ground Only)
Use this product as a broadcast spray at recommended rates, as listed in the "Application Rates" section, to control herbaceous weeds, woody brush and tree species, as listed in "Vegetation Controlled" section of this label, to release from competition the coniferous species listed below: Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga spp. Fir Abies spp. Hemlock Tsuga spp. Pine Pinus spp. Spruce Picea spp. For conifer release of spruce seedlings in the year of transplanting, apply 2 to 6 litres of this product per hectare in plantations of summer planted spruce species (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids). Conifers must be planted in the same year as treatment and in the field for at least 18 days prior to treatment. Seedlings to be treated must clearly show bud set and bud hardening following a dormancy induction regime in the nursery. The need for such early release treatments is expected on sites which are subject to the rapid development of herbaceous and shrub communities. Most annual and perennial weeds will be controlled or suppressed. Applications must be made after formation of final conifer resting buds. Applications made during period of active conifer growth may result in conifer injury. Avoid application during Lammas or late season conifer growth. Some autumn colors are acceptable provided no major leaf fall has occurred on undesirable brush and tree species. For conifer release, apply where conifers have been established for more than a year. Vegetation should not be disturbed immediately prior to treatment or until visual signs appear after treatment. Symptoms of treatment are slow to appear, especially in woody species treated in late fall. Injury may occur to conifers treated for release, especially where spray patterns overlap or the higher rates are applied or when applications are made during periods of active conifer growth. NOTE : This product is not recommended for use as an over-the-top broadcast spray in forest tree nurseries or in Christmas tree plantations. Applications in such sites should be limited to directed sprays (see "Conifer Release by Directed Spraying" section). DO NOT TREAT Christmas tree plantations in the year of anticipated harvest.
5.2.2 CONIFER RELEASE BY DIRECTED SPRAYING
Use this product to control herbaceous and woody species as listed in the "Vegetation Controlled" section of the label. Apply when the undesirable species are actively growing and the foliage is full and welldeveloped. This product does not provide pre-emergent weed control. Repeat treatments may be necessary to control weeds that generate from underground parts or seed. Undesirable deciduous species may be treated when they already have autumn colours, provided there has been no major leaf fall. For perennial broadleaf species, apply when most weeds have reached early head or early bud stage of growth. For annual and perennial grasses, apply when most weeds are 20 centimetres in height (3-4 leaf stage of growth). Direct spray so that the foliage of undesired vegetation is thoroughly wetted. Do not spray foliage to the point of run-off. Applying the product to conifers during their period of active growth (before lignification) may cause tree injury. Under such conditions, take the necessary precautions to ensure that spray, mist or spray drift does not come into contact with the foliage or green bark of conifers being cultivated. The product may be applied on sites regenerated by the following species (partial list): SPRUCE (Picea spp.), PINE (Pinus spp.), HEMLOCK (Tsuga spp.), DOUGLAS FIR (Pseudotsuga spp.). No time interval is required between tree planting and application of the product. For specific rates and application instructions, see the "Mixing", "Application Instructions" and "Vegetation Controlled" sections of the product label. Do not allow spray to come in contact with foliage, green stems or fruit of non-target crops, since they may be killed or severely damaged.
5.2.3 DECIDUOUS RELEASE (Ground Only)
Use this product to control herbaceous weeds and woody brush mentioned in the "Vegetation Controlled" section of the label. Apply when the undesirable species are actively growing, and the foliage is well developed. This product has no pre-emergent activity. Repeat treatments may be required for species which regenerate from underground stems or from seeds. Applications may be made to undesirable deciduous species with some autumn colours, provided that major leaf fall has not yet occurred. Use a directed spray to thoroughly cover the foliage of the undesirable vegetation. Take all necessary precautions to prevent contact of the spray, spray mist or spray drift with the foliage or green bark of desirable species. A partial list of species for use with this product on regenerated sites includes: ASH (Fraxinus spp.); WALNUT (Juglans spp); LINDEN or BASSWOOD (Tilia spp); CHERRY (Prunus spp.); OAK (Quercus spp); ELM (Ulmus spp) and POPLAR (Populus spp). Product may be applied immediately after transplanting. For use rates and application instructions, refer to the "Application Rates" and "Application Instructions" sections of this label.
5.2.4 INJECTION APPLICATIONS
Woody vegetation may be controlled by injection application of this product. Apply using suitable equipment, which must penetrate into living tissue, at a rate of at least 0.5 millilitres (either undiluted or 1:1 with water) per 5 centimetres tree diameter at breast height (DBH). The cuts should be spaced evenly around the tree and below all major branches. Application may be made at any time of year, except when cold temperatures prevent adequate penetration of injection equipment, or in the spring during periods of heavy sap flow. Control of tree species with tree diameters greater than 20 centimetres may not be acceptable at this rate. Total control may not be evident for 1-2 years following treatment.
* This treatment may only provide suppression of Big-Leaf Maple. Late fall applications will provide optimum suppression of Big-Leaf Maple
5.2.5 CUT STUMP APPLICATION
Woody vegetation may be controlled by the application of this product to freshly cut stumps to prevent regrowth. Because the treatment uses a concentrated solution, application must be made using low-pressure equipment e.g squirt bottle or similar device. This product must be applied immediately to the surface of the freshly cut stump i.e within 5 minutes, for optimum control at the prescribed rates. Only the cambial tissues of the cut surface should be treated. Apply the herbicide solution at a rate equivalent to at least 0.5 mL Glyfo Silvi herbicide for every 5 centimetres of DBH. Do not cover the remaining area nor any exposed roots, as this product does not penetrate bark well. This treatment may be used at any time of year, except during periods of heavy sap flow or when low temperatures prevent solution application due to freezing. A water soluble colourant may be added to the solution as a means of indicating which surfaces have been treated. Total control may not be evident until 1-2 years after treatment. See the “INJECTION APPLICATIONS” section of this label for a partial list of species controlled.
5.2.6 FOREST TREE PLANTING NURSERIES (GROUND ONLY)
This product may be used to control most annual and perennial weeds for site preparation prior to establishing plantations, or as a post directed spray in established plantations. Application may be made to established deciduous plantings of ASH, Fraxinus spp.; CARAGANA, Caragan spp.; CHERRY, Prunus spp.; ELM, Ulmus spp.; LILAC, Syringa spp.; MAPLE, Acer spp.; MOUNTAIN ASH, Sorbus spp.; POPLAR, Populus spp.; RUSSIAN OLIVE, Elaeagnus spp.; and WILLOW, Salix spp. Applications may be made prior to or in established conifer plantings of FIR, Abies spp.; JUNIPER, Juniperus spp.; PINE, Pinus spp.; SPRUCE, Picea spp.; and YEW, Taxus spp.. SPRAY MAY CONTACT MATURE BARK ONLY. AVOID SPRAY CONTACT WITH FOLIAGE OR GREEN BARK OF ESTABLISHED PLANTINGS IN POST DIRECTED APPLICATIONS. For specific rates and applications instructions, see “Application Rates” and "Application Instructions" section of this booklet. DO NOT APPLY UNDER WIND OR OTHER CONDITIONS WHICH ALLOW DRIFT TO OCCUR. If weeds have been mowed or tilled do not treat until regrowth has reached the recommended stages. This product does not provide pre-emergence weed control. Repeat treatments may be necessary to control weeds generating from underground parts or seed. NOTE : This product is not recommended for use as an over-the-top broadcast spray in forest tree nurseries or in Christmas tree plantations. Applications in such sites should be limited to directed sprays (see "Conifer Release by Directed Spraying" section). DO NOT TREAT Christmas tree plantations in the year of anticipated harvest.
5.2.7 SELECTIVE EQUIPMENT - WIPER APPLICATORS
This product may be applied with a wiper applicator, after dilution and thorough mixing water, to listed weeds in the “Vegetation Controlled” section of this label. It may be used in any forestry site specified in this label. A wiper applicator applies the herbicide solution onto weeds by rubbing the weed with an absorbent material containing the herbicide solution. Equipment must be designed, maintained and operated to prevent the herbicide solution from contacting desirable vegetation, except in cases of conifer release operations where conifers are well hardened off (see "Conifer Release” Section); in these cases, a slight contact between the wiper and the conifer may be acceptable. Performance may be improved by reducing speed in areas of heavy infestations to insure adequate wiper saturation. Best results may be obtained if 2 applications are made in opposite directions.
AVOID CONTACT WITH DESIRABLE VEGETATION.
Contact of the herbicide solution with desirable vegetation may result in damage or destruction. Applicators used above desired vegetation should be adjusted so that wiper contact point is at least 5 centimetres above the desirable vegetation. Droplets or foam of the herbicide solution settling on desirable vegetation may result in discoloration, stunting or destruction. Applications should be made when the weeds are a minimum of 15 centimetres above the desirable vegetation. Best results may be obtained when more of the weed is exposed to the herbicide solution. Weeds not contacted by the herbicide solution will not be affected. This may occur in dense clumps, severe infestations, or when the height of the weeds varies so that not all weeds are contacted. In these instances, repeat treatments may be necessary.
Maintain equipment in good operating condition. Avoid leakage or dripping onto desirable vegetation.
Adjust height of applicator to insure proper contact with weeds. Keep wiping surfaces clean.
Keep wiper material at proper degree of saturation with herbicide solution.
DO NOT use wiper equipment when weeds are wet. DO NOT operate equipment at ground speeds below 4 and greater than 10 kilometres per hour. Weed control may be affected by speed of application equipment. As weed density increases, reduce equipment ground speed to insure good coverage of weeds.
Be aware that on sloping ground the herbicide solution may migrate, causing dripping on the lower end and drying on the upper end of the wiper applicator.
Variation in equipment design may affect weed control. With wiper applicators, the wiping material and its orientation must allow delivery of sufficient quantities of the recommended herbicide solution directly to the weed.
Care must be taken with all types of wipers to insure that the absorbent material does not become over-saturated, causing the herbicide to drip onto desirable vegetation.
With all equipment, drain and clean wiper parts immediately after using this product, by thoroughly flushing with water.
For Wick or other Wiper Applicators--Mix 1 litre of this product in 2 litres of water to prepare a 33 percent solution.