Lesions first appear on leaves in late spring or early summer as small, round, purplish or blackish spots, gradually enlarging to 1/16 to 3/16 inch (1.5-5 mm) in diameter, with a brownish purple border (photo 2-41). Lesions may coalesce or undergo secondary enlargement and become irregular and much darker, acquiring a "frog-eye" appearance. When lesions occur on petioles, the leaves turn yellow and 50 percent or more defoliation may occur. Severe defoliation leads to premature fruit drop. Alternaria leaf blotch is most likely to occur on 'Delicious' strains and should not be confused with frogeye leaf spot, captan spot, or with 'Golden Delicious' necrotic leaf blotch. Frogeye leaf spot usually appears earlier in the season and is associated with nearby dead wood or fruit mummies. Captan spot spray injury occurs when captan fungicide is applied under wet conditions; it is usually worse near the sprayer, and regularly appears on leaves of the same age on the terminal shoots. 'Golden Delicious' necrotic leaf blotch commonly occurs in July and August as a result of physiological stress caused by fluctuating soil moisture.
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