Registratration Number: 62719-572
States available in: AL AK AZ AR CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY
For control of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds and woody plants and vines in
- rangeland, permanent grass pastures (including grasses grown for hay*), Conservation Reserve Program (CRP),
- forests, and
- non-cropland areas for example airports, barrow ditches, communication transmission lines, electrical power and utility rights-of-way, fencerows, gravel pits, industrial sites, military sites, mining and drilling areas, oil and gas pads, non-irrigation ditch banks, parking lots, petroleum tank farms, pipelines, roadsides, railroads, storage areas, dry storm water retention areas, substations, unimproved rough turf grasses, and
- natural areas (open spaces) for example, campgrounds, parks, prairie management, trailheads and trails, recreation areas, wildlife openings, and wildlife habitat and management areas,
- including grazed areas in and around these sites.
Use within sites listed above may include applications to seasonably dry wetlands (including flood plains, marshes, swamps, or bogs) and around standing water on sites such as deltas and riparian areas.
*Hay from grass treated with Capstone within the preceding 18-months can only be used on the farm or ranch where the product is applied unless allowed by supplemental labelling.
Non-Cropland Areas, Forests, Industrial Non-Crop Areas, Rangeland, Pastures and
CRP Capstone® specialty herbicide controls of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds and woody plants and vines in rangeland, permanent grass pastures (including grasses grown for hay*), Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), forests, and non-cropland areas for example airports, barrow ditches, communication transmission lines, electrical power and utility rights-of-way, fencerows, gravel pits, industrial sites, military sites, mining and drilling areas, oil and gas pads, non-irrigation ditch banks, parking lots, petroleum tank farms, pipelines, roadsides, railroads, storage areas, dry storm water retention areas, substations, unimproved rough turf grasses, and natural areas (open spaces) for example, campgrounds, parks, prairie management, trailheads and trails, recreation areas, wildlife openings, wildlife habitat and management areas, including grazed areas in and around these sites without injury to most grasses.
*Hay from grass treated with Capstone within the preceding 18-months can only be used on the farm or ranch where the product is applied unless allowed by supplemental labelling
Use within sites listed above may include applications to seasonably dry wetlands (including flood plains, marshes, swamps, or bogs) and around standing water on sites such as deltas and riparian areas.
Use Precautions and Restrictions
Consult with a Dow AgroSciences representative if you do not understand the “Use Precautions and Restrictions.” Call (1-800-263-1196) for more information.
- Do not use grasses treated with Capstone in the preceding 18-months for hay intended for export outside the United States.
- Hay from areas treated with Capstone in the preceding 18-months CAN NOT be distributed or made available for sale off the farm or ranch where harvested unless allowed by supplemental labeling.
- Hay from areas treated with Capstone in the preceding 18-months CAN NOT be used for silage, haylage, baylage and green chop unless allowed by supplemental labeling.
- Do not move hay made from grass treated with Capstone within the preceding 18-months off farm unless allowed by supplemental labeling.
- Do not use hay or straw from areas treated with Capstone within the preceding 18-months or manure from animals feeding on hay treated with Capstone in compost.
- Do not use grasses treated with Capstone in the preceding 18-months for seed production.
- It is permissible to treat non-irrigation ditch banks, seasonally dry wetlands (such as flood plains, deltas, marshes, swamps, or bogs) and transitional areas between upland and lowland sites only when dry.
- Minimize overspray to open water when treating target vegetation in and around non-flowing, quiescent or transient water. When making applications to control unwanted plants on banks or shorelines of flowing water, minimize overspray to open water.
Note: Consult local public water control authorities before applying this product in and around public water. Permits may be required to treat such areas.
- Avoiding Injury to Non-Target Plants: Do not aerially apply Capstone within 50 feet of a border downwind (in direction of wind movement), or allow spray drift to come in contact with, any broadleaf crop or other desirable broadleaf plants, including, but not limited to, alfalfa, cotton, dry beans, flowers, grapes, lettuce, potatoes, radishes, soybeans, sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, tomatoes or other broadleaf or vegetable crop, fruit trees, ornamental plants, or soil where sensitive crops are growing or will be planted. Avoid application under conditions that may allow spray drift because very small quantities of spray may seriously injure susceptible crops. Follow Precautions for Avoiding Spray Drift and Spray Drift Advisory under General Mixing and Application Instructions to minimize the potential for spray drift.
- Capstone is highly active against many broadleaf plant species. Do not use this product on areas where loss of desirable broadleaf plants, including legumes, cannot be tolerated.
- Do not apply this product on lawns, turf, ornamental plantings, urban walkways, driveways, tennis courts, golf courses, athletic fields, commercial sod operations, or other high-maintenance, fine turfgrass areas, or similar areas.
- Do not use this product for impregnation on dry fertilizer, unless specified in a Dow AgroSciences state specific product bulletin.
- Chemigation: Do not apply this product through any type of irrigation system.
- Do not contaminate water intended for irrigation or domestic purposes. Do not treat inside banks or bottoms of irrigation ditches, either dry or containing water, or other channels that carry water that may be used for irrigation or domestic purposes.
- Untreated trees can occasionally be affected by root uptake of Capstone through movement into the soil or by excretion of the product from the roots of nearby treated trees. Do not apply Capstone within the root zone of desirable trees.
Herbaceous Broadleaf Weed and Woody Plant Control Rangeland, Permanent Grass Pastures and CRP Acres
Capstone may be applied to rangeland, permanent pasture or CRP acres seeded to permanent grasses as an aerial or ground broadcast treatment, as a spot application, or as a high or low volume foliar application (see Application Methods section) to control susceptible broadleaf weeds, including invasive and noxious weeds (see Broadleaf Weeds Controlled section). Capstone may be applied alone or in tank mix combinations with labeled rates of other herbicides provided that: (1) the tank mix product is labeled for the timing and method of application for the use site to be treated and (2) tank mixing is not prohibited by the label of the registered tank mixed products. When tank mixing, follow the use directions on the labeling of each tank mix partner. Follow Mixing Instructions under the General Mixing and Application Instructions section.
Do not use Capstone if loss of legumes species or other broadleaf species cannot be tolerated.
During the season of establishment, Capstone should be applied only after perennial grasses are well established (have developed a good secondary root system and show good vigor). Most perennial grasses are tolerant to Capstone at this stage of development. Only Smooth Brome grass (Bromus inermis) has been identified to be suppressed by Capstone, this appears to occur under adverse environmental conditions. Plants should recover from this transient suppression with the onset of environmental conditions favorable to grass growth and upon release from weed competition.
Non-Cropland, Forests, and Industrial Non-Crop Areas
Capstone may be applied to non-cropland, forests, and industrial noncrop areas as an aerial or ground broadcast application, as a spot application, or as a high volume foliar application (see Application Methods section) to control herbaceous broadleaf weeds and woody plants. Capstone may be applied alone or in tank-mix combinations with labeled rates of other herbicides provided: (1) the tank mix product is labeled for the timing and method of application for the use site to be treated and (2) mixing is not prohibited by the label of the registered tank mixed products. Use as directed in the Directions of Use section of the tank-mix partner. Follow Mixing Instructions under the General Mixing and Application Instructions section below.
Forest Management Applications
For best control from broadcast applications of Capstone, use a spray volume which will provide thorough plant coverage. Recommended spray volumes are usually 10 to 25 gallons per acre by air or 10 to 100 gallons per acre by ground. To improve spray coverage of spray volumes less than 50 gallons per acre, add an agriculturally labeled non-ionic surfactant. Application systems should be used to prevent hazardous drift to off-target sites. Nozzles or additives that produce larger droplets of spray may require higher spray volumes.
Forest Site Preparation (Not for Conifer Release)
Use up to 9 pints of Capstone and apply in a total spray volume of 10 to 30 gallons per acre. Use a non-ionic agricultural surfactant for all foliar applications. Tank mixtures with other herbicides registered for forest use may be necessary to control woody brush if brush is not sensitive to the use rates of this product. When tank mixtures of herbicides are used for forest site preparation, labels for all products in the mixture must be followed and the longest recommended waiting period before planting observed.
Directed Spray Applications for Conifer Release
To release conifers from competing hardwoods such as red maple, sugar maple, striped maple, sweetgum, red and white oaks, ash, hickory, alder, birch, aspen, and pin cherry, mix 9 pints Capstone in enough water to make 100 gallons of spray mixture. To improve spray coverage, add an agriculturally labeled non-ionic surfactant. The spray mixture should be directed onto foliage of competitive hardwoods using knapsack or backpack sprayers with flat fan nozzles or equivalent any time after hardwoods have reached full leaf size, but before autumn coloration. The majority of treated hardwoods should be less than 6 feet in height to ensure adequate spray coverage. Care should be taken to direct spray away from contact with conifer foliage, particularly foliage of desirable pines.
Note: Over-the-top spray applications can severly injure or kill some species such as redbud and locust.
To control unwanted trees of hardwood species such as elm, maple, oak and conifers, apply Capstone, undiluted, by spraying or painting the cut surfaces of freshly cut stumps and stubs as soon as possible after cutting, if possible within about 5 minutes; waiting longer will reduce efficacy due to loss of turgor pressure (suction) in the cut stump. The cambium area next to the bark is the most vital area to wet.
With Tree Injector Method
Apply by injecting 1 milliliter of undiluted Capstone through the bark at intervals of 3 to 4 inches between centers of the injector wound. The injections should completely surround the tree at any convenient height. Note: No Worker Protection Standard worker entry restrictions or worker notification requirements apply when this product is injected directly into plants
With Hack and Squirt Method
Make cuts around the tree trunk at a convenient height with a hatchet or similar equipment so that the cuts overlap slightly and make a continuous circle around the trunk. Spray 1 milliliter of undiluted Capstone into the pocket created between the bark and the inner stem/trunk by each cut.
With Frill or Girdle Method
Make a single girdle through the bark completely around the tree at a convenient height. The frill should allow for the herbicide to remain next to the inner stem and absorb into the plant. Wet the cut surface with undiluted solution.
Both of the above methods may be used successfully at any season except during periods of heavy sap flow of certain species - for example, maples.
Herbaceous Broadleaf Weed and Woody Plant Management Practices
Capstone may be applied postemergence as a broadcast spray or as a spot application to control broadleaf weeds listed on this label; weeds other than those listed may also be controlled by this herbicide. Postemergence applications should be made before bud stage or early flowering, unless otherwise specified. When a rate range is given, use a higher rate in the range to control weeds at advanced growth stages or under less than favorable growing conditions (such as drought stress). Best weed control results are obtained when spray volume is sufficient to provide uniform coverage of treated plants. For optimum uptake and translocation of the herbicide, avoid mowing, haying, shredding, burning or soil disturbance in treated areas for at least 7 days following application.
Capstone also provides preemergence control of germinating seeds or emerging seedlings of susceptible broadleaf weeds following application.
Capstone can provide long-term control of weeds. The length of control is dependent upon the application rate, condition and growth stage of target weeds, environmental conditions at and following application, and the density and vigor of competing desirable vegetation. Long-term broadleaf weed control is most effective where grasses and other desirable vegetation is allowed to recover from adverse environmental conditions (such as drought) and compete with susceptible broadleaf weeds.
Capstone can be an important component of integrated vegetation management programs designed to renovate or restore desired noncropland plant communities. To maximize and extend the benefits of weed control provided by Capstone, it is important that other vegetation management practices, including mowing, fertilization, haying, etc., be used in appropriate sequences and combinations to further alleviate the adverse effects of weeds on desirable plant species and to promote development of desired non-cropland plant communities. Natural resources specialists with federal and state government agencies can provide guidance on best management practices and development of integrated vegetation management programs.
Herbaceous Broadleaf Weeds Controlled
The following weeds will be controlled with the rates of Capstone indicated in Table 1 below. For best results, most weeds should be treated when they are actively growing and under conditions favorable for growth. Use a higher rate in the rate range when growing conditions are less than favorable or when weed foliage is tall and dense. Capstone also provides preemergence control of germinating seeds and control of emerged seedlings of susceptible broadleaf weeds following application.
General Mixing and Application Instructions
Mixing with Water: To prepare the spray, add about half the required amount of water in the spray tank. Then, with agitation, add Capstone and other registered tank mix herbicides. Finally, with continued agitation, add the rest of the water and additives such as surfactants or drift reduction and deposition aids.
Tank Mixing with Other Herbicides: Capstone at rates of up to 9 pints per acre may be mixed with labeled rates of other herbicides registered for application on listed sites to broaden the spectrum of weeds controlled or to improve control of certain weeds. Capstone may be applied in tankmix combination with labeled rates of other herbicides provided: (1) the product tank-mixed with Capstone is labeled for the timing and method of application for the use site to be treated; (2) mixing is not prohibited by the label of the product to be tank mixed with Capstone; and (3) Capstone is compatible with the product to be included in a tank-mix. Use as directed in the Directions for Use section of the tank mix partner.
- For direct injection or other spray equipment where the product formulations will be mixed in undiluted form, special care should be taken to ensure tank mix compatibility (see Tank Mix Compatibility Testing below.)
- Always perform a jar test to ensure the compatibility of products to be used in tank mixture.
Note: If tank mixing with Accord®Concentrate or Rodeo® herbicides, mix the Capstone with at least 75% of the total spray volume desired and ensure that the Capstone is well mixed before adding the Accord Concentrate or Rodeo to avoid incompatibility.
Tank-Mix Compatibility Testing: Perform a jar test prior to mixing in a spray tank to ensure compatibility of Capstone and other pesticides or carriers. Use a clear glass jar with lid and mix ingredients in the same order and proportions as will be used in the spray tank. The mixture is compatible if the materials mix readily when the jar is inverted several times. The mixture should remain stable after standing for 1/2 hour or, if separation occurs, should readily remix if agitated. An incompatible mixture is indicated by separation into distinct layers that do not readily remix when agitated and/or the presence of flakes, precipitates, gels, or heavy oily film in the jar. Use of an appropriate compatibility aid such as Unite or Complex may resolve mix incompatibility. If the mixture is incompatible do not use that tank mix partner in tank mixtures.
Use with Surfactants: For post-emergence applications, a high quality surfactant such as a non-ionic surfactant of at least 80% active ingredient, should be added at 0.25% to 0.5% by volume (unless otherwise specified) to enhance herbicide activity under adverse environmental conditions (such as, high temperature, low relative humidity, drought conditions, dusty plant surfaces) or when weeds are heavily pubescent or more mature.
Sprayer Clean-Out Instructions
Do not use spray equipment used to apply Capstone for other applications to land planted to susceptible crops or desirable sensitive plants unless it has been determined that all residues of this herbicide has been removed by thorough cleaning of equipment.
Equipment used to apply Capstone should be thoroughly cleaned before reusing to apply any other chemicals as follows:
1. Rinse and flush application equipment thoroughly after use. Dispose of rinse water in non-cropland area away from water supplies.
2. Rinse a second time, adding 1 quart of household ammonia or tank cleaning agent for every 25 gallons of water. Circulate the solution through the entire system so that all internal surfaces are contacted (15 to 20 minutes). Let the solution stand for several hours, preferably overnight.
3. Flush the solution out of the spray tank through the boom.
4. Rinse the system twice with clean water, recirculating and draining each time.
5. Spray nozzles and screens should be removed and cleaned separately.
Precautions for Avoiding Spray Drift
Avoid application under conditions that may allow spray drift because very small quantities of spray, which may not be visible, may injure susceptible crops. This product should be applied only when the potential for drift to adjacent sensitive areas (e.g., residential areas, bodies of water, nontarget crops and other plants) is minimal (e.g., when wind is blowing away from the sensitive areas. A drift control aid may be added to the spray solution to further reduce the potential for drift. If a drift control aid is used, follow the use directions and precautions on the manufacturer's label. Do not use a thickening agent with Microfoil, Thru-Valve booms, or other spray delivery systems that cannot accommodate thickened spray solutions.
Ground Equipment: With ground equipment spray drift can be lessened by keeping the spray boom as low as possible; by applying 10 gallons or more of spray per acre; by keeping the operating spray pressures at the manufacturer's recommended minimum pressures for the specific nozzle type used (low pressure nozzles are available from spray equipment manufacturers); and by spraying when the wind velocity is low (follow state regulations). Avoid calm conditions which may be conducive to thermal inversions. Direct sprays no higher than the tops of target vegetation and keep spray pressures low enough to provide coarse spray droplets to minimize drift.
Aerial Application: Avoid spray drift at the application site. The interaction of many equipment-and weather-related factors determine the potential for spray drift. Users are responsible for considering all these factors when making decisions. The following drift management requirements must be followed to avoid off-target drift movement from aerial applications: 1. The distance of the outer most operating nozzles on the boom must not exceed 75% of wingspan or 85% of the rotor diameter. 2. Nozzles should be pointed backward parallel with the air stream or not pointed downwards more than 45 degrees. Where states have more stringent regulations, they should be observed. The applicator should be familiar with and take into account the information covered in the following Aerial Drift Reduction Advisory. This information is advisory in nature and does not supersede mandatory label requirements.
Aerial Drift Reduction Advisory
Information on Droplet Size: The most effective way to reduce drift potential is to apply large droplets. The best drift management strategy is to apply the largest droplets that provide sufficient coverage and control. Applying larger droplets reduces drift potential, but will not prevent drift if applications are made improperly, or under unfavorable environmental conditions (see Wind, Temperature and Humidity, and Temperature Inversions).
Controlling Droplet Size:
- Volume - Use high flow rate nozzles to apply the highest practical spray volume. Nozzles with higher rated flows produce larger droplets.
- Pressure - Do not exceed the nozzle manufacturer’s recommended pressures. For many nozzle types lower pressure produces larger droplets. When higher flow rates are needed, use higher flow rate nozzles instead of increasing pressure.
- Number of Nozzles - Use the minimum number of nozzles that will provide uniform coverage.
- Nozzle Orientation - Orient nozzles so that the spray is released parallel to the airstream. This produces larger droplets than other orientations. Significant deflection from horizontal will reduce droplet size and increase drift potential.
- Nozzle Type - Use a nozzle type that is designed for the intended application. With most nozzle types, narrower spray angles produce larger droplets. Consider using low-drift nozzles. Solid stream nozzles oriented straight back produce the largest droplets and the lowest drift.
Boom Length: For some use patterns, reducing the effective boom length to less than 75% of wingspan or 85% of the rotor diameter may further reduce drift without reducing swath width.
Application Height: Applications should not be made at a height greater than 10 feet above the top of the largest plants unless a greater height is required for aircraft safety. Making applications at the lowest height that is safe reduces exposure of droplets to evaporation and wind.
Swath Adjustment: When applications are made with a crosswind, the swath will be displaced downwind. Therefore, on the up and downwind edges of the field, the applicator must compensate for this displacement by adjusting the path of the aircraft upwind. Swath adjustment distance should increase, with increasing drift potential (higher wind, smaller drops, etc.).
Wind: Drift potential is lowest between wind speeds of 2 to 10 mph. However, many factors, including droplet size and equipment type determine drift potential at any given speed. Application should be avoided below 2 mph due to variable wind direction and high inversion potential. Note: Local terrain can influence wind patterns. Every applicator should be familiar with local wind patterns and how they affect spray drift.
Temperature and Humidity: When making applications in low relative humidity, set up equipment to produce larger droplets to compensate for evaporation. Droplet evaporation is most severe when conditions are both hot and dry.
Temperature Inversions: Applications should not occur during a local, low level temperature inversion because drift potential is high. Temperature inversions restrict vertical air mixing, which causes small suspended droplets to remain in a concentrated cloud. This cloud can move in unpredictable directions due to the light variable winds common during inversions. Temperature inversions are characterized by increasing temperatures with altitude and are common on nights with limited cloud cover and light to no wind. They begin to form as the sun sets and often continue into the morning. Their presence can be indicated by ground fog; however, if fog is not present, inversions can also be identified by the movement of the smoke from a ground source or an aircraft smoke generator. Smoke that layers and moves laterally in a concentrated cloud (under low wind conditions) indicates an inversion, while smoke that moves upward and rapidly dissipates indicates good vertical air mixing.
|Cropsarrow_upward||arrow_upwardBBCH||arrow_upwardRegistred norm||arrow_upwardPreharvest Interval|
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- Maltese star-thistleCentaurea melitensis ★★★
- Broadleaf plantainPlantago major ★★★
- Common chickweedStellaria media ★★★
- Spotted ladysthumbPolygonum persicaria ★★★
- Canada thistleCirsium arvense ★★★
- CleaversGalium aparine ★★★
- Common dandelionTaraxacum officinale ★★★
- VetchesVicia ★★★
- European bindweedConvolvulus arvensis ★★★
- White cloverTrifolium repens ★★★
- ChamomileMatricaria recutita ★★★
- Common yarrowAchillea millefolium ★★★
- Henbit dead-nettleLamium amplexicaule ★★★
- Curly dockRumex crispus ★★★
- Smooth sowthistleSonchus oleraceus ★★★
- Greater knapweedCentaurea scabiosa ★★★
- Three-lobe beggarticksBidens tripartita ★★★
- Red cloverTrifolium pratense ★★★
- Scentless mayweedTripleurospermum perforata ★★★
- Welted thistleCarduus crispus ★★★
- Common ragweedAmbrosia artemisiifolia ★★★
- Spear thistleCirsium vulgare ★★★
- Hoary plantainPlantago media ★★★
- Common ragwortSenecio jacobaea ★★★
- Saffron thistleCarthamus lanatus ★★★
- Flaxleaf fleabaneConyza bonariensis ★★★
- Subterranean cloverTrifolium subterraneum ★★★
- Yellow star-thistleCentaurea solstitialis ★★★
- SicklepodSenna obtusifolia ★★★
- Artichoke thistleCynara cardunculus ★★★
- Slender thistlesCarduus tenuiflorus, Carduus pycnocephalus ★★★
- Needle burrAmaranthus spinosus ★★★
- Purple goosefootChenopodium giganteum ★★★
- FireweedSenecio madagascariensis ★★★
- Cotton thistleOnopordum acanthium ★★★
- HogweedZaleya galericulata ★★★
- Red star-thistleCentaurea calcitrapa ★★★
- St. Johns wortHypericum perforatum ★★★
- Black knapweedCentaurea nigra ★★★
- Russian knapweedCentaurea repens ★★★
- Silver - leaved nightshadeSolanum elaeagnifolium ★★★
- ChicoryCichorium intybus ★★★
- Narrowleaf plantainPlantago lanceolata ★★★
- Creeping knapweedRhaponticum repens ★★★
- Ox-eye daisyChrysanthemum leucanthemum ★★★
- Wild carrotDaucus carota ★★★
- Great mulleinVerbascum thapsus ★★★
- Annual broomweedAmphiachyris dracunculoides ★★★
- Common burdockArctium minus ★★★
- Hairy buttercupRanunculus sardous ★★★
- Tall buttercupRanunculus acris ★★★
- CamelthornAlhagi pseudalhagi ★★★
- CinquefoilPotentilla spp. ★★★
- CockleburXanthium strumarium ★★★
- Woolly crotonCroton capitatus ★★★
- CrownvetchSecurigera varia ★★★
- Purple cudweedGnaphalium purpureum ★★★
- Cutleaf evening primroseOenothera laciniata ★★★
- Common fiddleneckAmsinckia intermedia ★★★
- Orange hawkweedHieracium aurantiacum ★★★
- Yellow hawkweedHieracium pratense ★★★
- Carolina horsenettleSolanum carolinense ★★★
- Tall ironweedVernonia gigantea ★★★
- Western ironweedVernonia baldwinii ★★★
- Annual lespedezaLespedeza striata ★★★
- Wild licoriceGlycyrrhiza lepidota ★★★
- Purple loosestrifeLythrum salicaria ★★★
- Annual marshelderIva annua ★★★
- Black medicMedicago lupulina ★★★
- Spanish needleBidens bipinnata ★★★
- Swainson peaSphaerophysa salsula ★★★
- PovertyweedIva axillaris ★★★
- Pennsylvania smartweedPolygonum pensylvanicum ★★★
- Tropical soda appleSolanum viarum ★★★
- Annual sowthistleSonchus oleraceae ★★★
- Common sunflowerHelianthus annua ★★★
- Absinth wormwoodArtemisia absinthium ★★★
- Common teaselDipsacus fullonum ★★★
- Hop CloverTrifolium aureum ★★★
- Crimson cloverTrifolium incarnatum ★★★
- Hairy fleabaneErigeron bonariensis ★★★
- Panicle willowherbEpilobium brachycarpum ★★★
- Blackseed plantainPlantago rugelii ★★★
- HorseweedConyza canadensis ★★★
- SneezeweedHelenium ★★★